by Edo Nyland
Well before the first known pharaoh came to the throne in Egypt, ca. 5200 B.P., a sophisticated system of morpheme agglutination was developed for the purpose of creating words and names. The ancient Sumerians credited the Goddess Nisaba with the invention of writing. It may well be that the complicated but well designed Egyptian system of word and name invention was also the product of female creativity.
All names that have come to us in close to the original form can be translated by reversing the agglutinating process used by the ancient linguists. Several steps were involved in encoding the words. A summary of these steps is outlined here.
16 consonants were selected to be part of the system:
B, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, R, S, T, X and Z
and 5 vowels:
A, E, I, O, U.
The first morpheme of each new word was to be composed of vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV). This rule created 25 different VCVs for each consonant. Example for B:
ABA EBA IBA OBA UBA
ABE EBE IBE OBE UBE
ABI EBI IBI OBI UBI
ABO EBO IBO OBO UBO
ABU EBU IBU OBU UBU
As there were 16 consonants, this meant that 16 x 25 = 400 different VCVs were created. In addition the R was pronounced in two ways, the normal R, and the rolling R, which last one was spelled as RR. This created 25 VCCVs for a total of 425 different morphemes.
Each VCV was then associated with a number of meanings, the majority with only a few, some with only one, some with many. The selection of these meanings must have taken a lot of experimenting to get the right combination because the system was expertly assembled and has worked well to this day.
Examples of different VCVs and their meanings:
VxCV1 -- V1CV2 -- V2CV3 -- V3CV4 -- V4CV etc.
One single meaning: IHO: thunder, ESO: advice.
Samples of multiple meanings associated with VCVs:
ABI: nest/home, speed, hurry, departure, impulsive, walk, talent, skillful.
IHE: escape, inevitable, shelter, unavoidable, fated
OKE: twisted, mistaken, bad, perverted, injury, error, astray, oblique, winding
ELU: snow, mud, avalanche, snowball, reindeer, to freeze
EME: female, smooth, soft, shy, here, enlarge, native, peaceful
ASI: to begin, start, initial, elementary, first fruit, origin
ESI: fence, siege, blockade, surround, round-up
ATI: loyal to, faithful, to retain, to seize, attach, gather, catch, pinch
IZU: panic, fright, to terrify, very, daring, shocked, spooked, to terrorize, epidemic, to infect, curl.
To distinguish from each other the different meanings belonging to the same VCV, descriptive morphemes were agglutinated to the first morpheme. The 425 morphemes contained enough meanings to express almost anything the linguists wanted to say. When the system was completed, so very long ago, all VCVs may have been used, however, today the meanings of some 28 of them are no longer known (e.g. obu, odu, efa, ejo, olu etc.). It is also possible that some of these had been left unused for future enhancement of the system.
THE NAMES AND WORDS.
Here is where some genius entered the creative process. A sentence pertaining to, or describing, the subject or person was decided upon. The basic structure of each fully assembled word or name was decided to be VCVCVCV, i.e. no two consonants or two vowels were initially allowed beside each other; two consonants had to have a vowel in between. In practice this meant that the last vowel of each VCV had to be the same as the first vowel of the following VCV so overlapping (interlocking) was possible. In the case of two adjoining vowels, an "h" was missing. After the morphemes had been agglutinated and the new word was almost complete, the linguist was allowed to remove a number of vowels to give the word character or ease of pronounciation, even though this made decoding more time-consuming. This process can be expressed with the formula:
In which the very first Vx is optional because occasionally a word starting with CV was used in first position. Where a vowel was removed from the word or name to be decoded, a dot is placed to indicate the missing letter. Any "x" in the writings was pronounced as "sh". The words so created must have been the first invented vocabulary on earth. The most amazing thing about these words is that they were preserved for posterity as part of the Basque language, which is composed of about half of these invented VCV words. The Basque language is subject to change, just as any other, however, this change has been confined to the CV half of the language. It appears that the successive religious authorities, controlling linguistics, made sure that the ancient VCV vocabulary was used and transmitted correctly. The excellent Basque-English dictionary by Gorka Aulestia is used for the following decodings.
Here is a good example which illustrates the above rules: |
.me -- eso -- opo -- ota -- ami -- i.a
eme -- exo -- opo -- ota -- ami -- iha
emen -- exorzizatu -- oporrez -- otalurmendiak -- amiltze -- ihardunaldi
here -- to flow out -- lazily -- wild mountains -- tumbling down -- period of activity
Here (the rivers) flow lazily (after) a period of tumbling down the wild mountains.
Mesopotamia cannot be a Greek name meaning Land between the rivers as taught in school. The Greek language did not exist in the Neolithic, as the Linear-B tablets prove.
IT TAKES SIX STEPS TO DECODE.
- Transliterate the ancient letters into our script.
- Replace C and Q with K, V with B or F, Y with I or J, W with U.
- Insert H in between consecutive vowels.
- Insert the sequence so obtained into the VCV formula, making sure that the vowels on either side of the hyphens are the same.
- Use the VCV list to write the associated words under each VCV.
- Select those words which make a proper sentence most closely fitting the meaning of the word or name to be decoded.
Where a vowel is missing, all five vowels must be tested to determine which one.
The shorthand system thus invented is no exact science. One cannot expect such an extremely ancient system to be created with modern scientific insight. Applying this system requires a certain amount of experience and an understanding of the times in which the name was created. Occasionally two good sentences show up and both must be recorded for further analysis. Scientists in general do not like a system that is subjective but decoding works in the majority of cases.
NEW INFORMATION IN OLD NAMES.
Using the system of decoding described above, we can often find new and interesting information about early history. Take for instance the word Cataract, the narrow gorge on the Nile where in early dynasties the pharaoh was ritually sacrificed by drowning:
.ka -- ata -- ara -- ak. - .t.
ika -- ata -- ara -- aka -- ate
ikaragaitz -- atano -- arauzaletasun -- akabatu -- aterriki
fearless -- hereafter -- respect for the law -- to end a life -- calmly
Fearlessly, in respect for the law of the hereafter, he calmly ended his life.
Around 1900 B.C. pharaoh Sesostris III (12th dynasty) ordered his engineers to cut a channel 260 feet long and 34 feet wide through the granite of the First Cataract. This action not only allowed his war galleys to sail farther upriver, but also removed the whirlpool in which earlier pharaohs had gone to their voluntary death. The above translation confirms the dreadful practice.
The last pharaoh to go voluntarily to his untimely death appears to have been Nebtawyrat Mentuhotep (11th dynasty):
.ne -- eb. - .ta -- a.u -- u.i -- ira -- at.
ine -- eba -- ata -- ahu -- uhi -- ira -- ate
inertzia -- ebatzi -- atano -- ahukeramen -- uhin -- iraun -- ateri
passive -- to decide -- evergreen forest/hereafter -- free will -- wave -- to endure -- calm
He passively decided to endure the waves calmly on his
own free will (to enter) the hereafter.
.me -- en. - .tu -- uho -- ote -- ep.
ame -- eni -- itu -- uho -- ote -- epa
ameskaitz -- eni -- itxuragabe -- uhol -- ote -- epai
nightmare -- to me -- senseless -- flood/cataract -- perhaps -- judgement
To me the senseless nightmare in the Cataract is perhaps a judgement.
Similar information appears when decoding the name of a very narrow gorge on the Tigris river, known as the Baghloia Defile, which is only 40 yards wide. It is located 18 miles south of the river"s point of entry into Iraq.
.ba -- ag. - .h. - .lo -- oi -- i.a
aba -- aga -- ahi -- ilo -- ohi -- iha
abadeak -- aga -- ahiene -- ilordu -- ohinazetsu -- ihauskatu
priests -- abundantly/loudly -- to lament -- death throes -- tormented -- tumbling over and over
The priests loudly lamented the death throes of the tormented one tumbling over and over.
A third place where nobility went voluntarily to their sacrificial deaths by drowning is mentioned in Homer's Odyssey. He calls it the whirlpool of Charybdis and describes the environment in excellent geographical detail, but weaves a strange legendary fable around it. Fortunately, his most important information is corroborated by St. Adomnan (627-704 AD) who, in his book The Life of Colomba, called the whirlpool Carubdis Brecani, which was named after Prince Brecan who had been voluntarily anchored in the whirlpool in a coracle (skin boat) and was drowned according to plan. This treacherous whirlpool still exists at the north tip of the Isle of Jura, some 50 miles west of Glasgow and memories of these happenings are still vivid among the local population.
.ka -- aru -- ub. ' dis
aka -- aru -- ubi ' dis
akabu -- arunt -- ubil -- dizdiz
death -- vulgar -- whirlpool -- shining/sparkling
Vulgar death in the shining whirlpool.
A few miles away is the Isle of Iona where Martin Martin Gent. noted peculiar sanctity in the introduction to his 1695 book The Hebrides:
They can boast that they are honoured with the Sepulchres of eight Kings of Norway, who at this day, with forty eight Kings of Scotland, and four of Ireland lie entomb"d in the Isle of Iona; a Place then fam"d for some peculiar Sanctity.
The many princes from NW Europe who died in the whirlpool had apparently been buried there with great honour. The Irish monks who later built an important monastery in the middle of that graveyard, raised the level of the cemetery about 3 feet and covered all these princely graves over, which therefore may still exist underneath this layer of sand and rock. The original access road to the church entrance shows the former elevation of the land.
A FEW MORE DECODINGS TO SHOW THE POSSIBILITIES.
Two names of the first known pharaoh are Narmer and Menes (same person) Both names mean the same in different words:
.na -- ar. - .me -- er.
ana -- aro -- ome -- ere
anaitu -- aro -- omenezko -- erreinu
to unite -- all -- honourable -- kingdom
I united all into an honourable kingdom.
.me -- ene -- es.
ome -- ene -- esa
omendu -- enetan -- ezarle
to honour -- always -- founder
Always honour our founder.
The first three pharaohs named Ramesses endured many naval attacks from the powerful Sea Peoples and this name reflects the nightmares which Egypt experienced.
.ra -- ame -- es. - .se -- es.
ura -- ame -- ese -- eze -- esi
urabazter -- amesgaitz -- esetsi -- ezereztu -- ezigabe
bank of the river -- nightmare -- to attack -- to annihilate -- savage
(During) the nightmare on the banks of the river
we attacked and annihilated the savages.
The meaning of the word pyramid has never been agreed upon:
.pi - ira - ami - id.
epi - ira - ami - ide
epika - iragartzapen - amildu - ideadura
epic - to prophesy - destruction - ideology
The epic prophesied the destruction of our ideology.
An important epic of utopia is mentioned in many religious writings and names e.g:
egi - ip. - .t.
egi - ipu - uto
egin - ipuin - utopia
to create - legend - utopia
We created the legend of utopia.
We can find new information is contained in the names of Mesopotamia, e.g:
.zi -- ig. - .gu -- ura -- at. - .h.
azi -- iga -- agu -- ura -- ata -- aha
azitoki -- igan -- aguregin -- uralditu -- atano -- ahalguzti
re-incarnation place -- to ascend to -- to worship -- to carry water -- evergreen forest -- almighty
We ascend to the re-incarnation place to worship, and
carry water to the evergreen forest of the Almighty.
The ziggurath was flat-topped and covered with bitumen to protect the dried mud bricks from the water which was carried up by the worshipers. The priestess lived in a small temple in this evergreen forest. Early writings mention such a forest garden as a hanging garden.
Virtually all names in Near Eastern antiquity were assembled in this manner and all may be translated using the system explained above. The subject is discussed in much greater detail in my book Linguistic Archaeology (Trafford 2001): www.trafford.com/robots/01-0069.html.
Edo Nyland, March 26, 2002.
Sidney, B.C., Canada.